Data analytics has been an integral part of manufacturing management for most of its history. However, analytics has undergone both evolutionary and revolutionary changes over the decades with the advent of information technology and digital data gathering and analysis. Part One of this series takes a look at the evolution behind data analytics and new data sources behind its growth. Part Two will provide practical applications of data within the manufacturing environment.
Part One: Data Analytics in Manufacturing
The most recent revolution in this space has been the availability of an extremely large amount of data, collected in real time, from multiple sources across the manufacturing operations, often referred to as “Big Data.” Sources of this data are:
Various sensors and measuring devices that are part of the manufacturing line
Material input-output transaction processing at each manufacturing stage
Location-based data for material and equipment in a manufacturing plant
Quality inspection data from online checks
Usage based data for equipment
Analysis of all this big data can provide deep insights into the manufacturing planning and operations processes and aid in optimized decision making.
Production and Distribution Planning
A large amount of data is available from current Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) and Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) that lends itself to analysis, providing insights into the performance of the manufacturing operations. When large amounts of data from the Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)-sensors and machines are included - the analysis yields results at low levels of granularity (both time and equipment). This kind of analysis can help with the end-to-end supply chain planning processes, including capacity planning, order allocation, production scheduling, inventory planning and can even be made to extend to suppliers, customers and logistics partners.
Process parameter optimization
In cases of complex manufacturing operations, especially where a number of process parameters affect productivity, manufacturers can use real-time data from the plant floor to optimize such parameters to improve yield, quality and operational efficiency. These solutions are common in the chemical process as well as semiconductor manufacturing industries, but lend themselves to use in other industries that incorporate process parameter controls.
Condition monitoring and predictive maintenance
While most organizations focus on minimizing unplanned downtime by implementing planned preventive maintenance schedules, these are expensive and time consuming, not to mention the risk of failures and unplanned downtime due to reliability issues in the hundreds of machine parts involved. Leading manufacturing organizations have implemented condition monitoring and predictive maintenance solutions to overcome such issues. With the availability of huge amounts of data from PLCs, sensors and machines directly, it is now possible to analyze this data and predict failure to a level of accuracy that allows predictive maintenance to be completely automated with minimal human intervention in decision making. These have resulted in improved equipment efficiencies and lower quality costs.
Material flow analysis (identification of bottlenecks, non-value added flows)
Most plant floors and warehouses deal with millions of pallets of raw materials, work-in-process and finished goods that are moved around the plant floor and warehouses using material handling equipment. Such movement often leads to bottlenecks that can result in downtimes due to machines being starved of inputs. In many cases, such movement is not really necessary for the operation and adds no value to the product. Location based data from these pallets as well as material handling equipment can be analyzed to find bottlenecks, which can then be targeted to improve operational efficiencies on the plant floor
Lean / six sigma initiatives
Most manufacturers now have an extreme focus on operating costs, yields and quality and have implemented lead / six sigma initiatives to identify and eliminate waste in any form from the plant floor. Such initiatives rely heavily on data based analysis and decision making to identify improvement actions. Data from the plant floor, whether it is from the stationary sources (machines, PLCs, sensors) or mobile sources (materials, material handling equipment, people), is key to support these initiatives.
How can Cisco help your manufacturing organization improve efficiencies and gain valuable insight through data? Visit our solutions page to find out more and share your thoughts with us in the comments section below. Stayed tuned for Part Two of this series where I’ll detail practical applications of data within the manufacturing environment.
What is the current state of your plant’s floor? You might be using a mix of PCs and plant floor equipment (human-machine interface, or HMI) from a variety of manufacturers, installed over many years. Your PCs might even include software from numerous developers, created on different operating systems, and using different versions. Put simply, the average plant floor today is highly inefficient, prone to failure and vulnerable to cyber-attacks.
Today’s manufacturing executives must recognize the benefits of increasing their plant floor’s production efficiency. Focusing on efficiency leads to increased operational profitability with two excellent outcomes: plants can produce more at the same cost or produce the same quantity of products at lower cost. Imagine if your plant operators could repair hardware failures in minutes, or configure and test security patches using a robust standardized architecture, before they upload it to the production equipment. These are the types of advancements that only virtualization can help a modern plan floor provide.
Plant Floor Virtualization
Virtualization is a powerful, mature technology that is delivering dramatic gains in plant floor production efficiency and security. Virtualization separates the computing function, applications, and data from the physical computers on your plant floor. The computing function relocates to a central data center, typically located somewhere within the plant. And it stays there, where it remains secure with the necessary redundancy applied. On virtualized floors, many are seeing increases in net operating profit ranging from .76 percent to 3.64 percent for each percentage point increase in production efficiency.
For example, a packaged goods company that was recently struggling to keep their PCs updated with critical security patches, due to incompatible software on the company’s industrial PCs. Plant floor operators had little knowledge of how to maintain and manage the PCs. With a lack of standards across plants, staff wasn’t able to apply PC patches or, if they did, they applied them inconsistently. The company with the help of Cisco partner, the Applied Group, decided to deploy a virtualized plant-floor architecture based on Cisco’s Unified Computing System (UCS).
The solution provided a standardized architecture across the plant and enabled the plant operators to provide consistent, up-to-date images, even with diverse requirements across the plant floor. Because of this, plant downtime dropped considerably since the standardized architecture handles patches more consistently across a compatible environment. Software testing cycles and disaster recovery testing time have gone from days and weeks to hours. Since line workers are using retrofitted touchscreens on similar PCs, they experience the same physical environment. Finally, greater efficiencies mean that the company is able to reduce the number of data centers in the plant from three to two.
Benefits of the Virtualized Plant Floor
A virtualized plant floor provides:
Risk avoidance and strengthened security as updates and security patches are handled centrally, helping to ensure consistent updates with minimal downtime.
Greater flexibility to add or expand production lines or new plants, even integrating mergers and acquisitions, because all devices run a standard software image that can be easily downloaded.
Better control of IT costs by taking advantage of server consolidation and lowered licensing costs, plus less overhead.
Deployment of thin clients that are less costly than thick PC clients.
Preserving your existing PC investment by turning them into thin clients as part of the virtualized floor.
Every manufacturing environment is unique. However, Cisco and The Applied Group are helping many manufacturers virtualize their plant floors. Cisco UCS is a critical element of successful virtualization and provides an open, end-to-end, service-optimized infrastructure for next-generation virtual workspaces.
Cisco and The Applied Group have the experience and the expertise, and you can take advantage of what we’ve learned from helping dozens of customers move to virtualization and provide the plan, processes, platform, and people to support your solution. Find out how Cisco and The Applied Group can help your plant be more secure and more productive. For more information visit the Cisco Data Center and Virtualization website and The Applied Group’s company website.
Earlier this summer, I found myself in Madison, Wisconsin at the headquarters of one of our customers, Sub-Zero. Sub-Zero is the leading brand of built-in refrigeration and in 2000, acquired the Wolf line of cooking appliances. Both are the dream brands for anyone undertaking a kitchen remodel or dreaming of one (including my wife!). The Sub-Zero facilities are gorgeous, particularly the kitchen showrooms where they showcase innovative shapes, sizes, and models for all sorts of consumer needs, kitchen styles and décor.
I was particularly struck at how these appliances- truly the most beautiful and technologically advanced of their kind, are designed and built in the heartland of America (with engineering in Wisconsin and manufacturing in Arizona). The Cisco team and I, along with our partner from Librestream, were there to profile how Sub-Zero used the Internet of Everything, in this case, innovative mobile video collaboration to re-engineer and streamline their new product design, manufacturing and installation processes. Find out more details on their use case and business outcomes Sub-Zero experienced from my colleague Chet Namboodri’s blog on Sub-Zero Innovates with the Internet of Everything
The appetite for the latest new products and services is growing exponentially driven by the 24 hour, on demand, social media driven, next day delivery expecting, ‘selfie' posing with the new shiny object, hyper informed consumer. Satisfying the demand for this fast-paced consumer cycle requires manufacturers to move rapidly to stay ahead of competitors and consumer tastes. They must bring interesting and exciting new products to market in a timely fashion, whether they are first to market or responding to a competitor’s new product offerings.
Two specific trends are emerging and transforming how the industry develops, manufactures and meets the demands of the new on demand consumer driving market - crowd sourcing and 3D printing.
Manufacturing Game Changers: Crowdsourcing and 3D Printing
Crowdsourcing is not a new development model. In fact, the open-source model gave us the Linux operating system and the Apache Web server over 20 years ago. But there is one very distinct difference when applying crowdsourcing methodology to a manufacturing process, as opposed to software development, and that is raw material. This is where 3D printing technology is rapidly maturing driving orders of magnitude efficiencies and cost savings into the value chain.
A Printed Car
In fact, a start-up called Local Motors is on the cutting edge of combining crowdsourcing and 3D printing to revolutionize the automobile industry. In a process that Local Motors calls “co-creation,” — also known as “crowdsourcing” — the software allows enthusiasts to post a design for a part that other users in a worldwide community can call up on a browser, see in 3D, take measurements from, and comment on, thus providing a new model and methodology for innovation. Local Motors then leverage 3D printing technology to deploy "microfactories"
Can crowdsourcing and 3D printing produce an electric car?
What if you could keep track of manufacturing processes without having to hunt for work in progress (WIP), retrieve carts or pallets or search for a special tool or fixture? Wandering the warehouse in search of these things is a waste of time and resources, and costs money without generating income. What if you never needed to search again? Any time spent that is not specifically changing product form, fit, or function is waste. However, with the right tools from AeroScout, manufacturers can locate anything or anyone in their facility.
Before you can attack waste associated with manufacturing, you must first visualize it. Live, accurate WIP tracking can identify where flow gets congested, products misdirected, and orders lost. A real-time location system (RTLS) can also monitor specialized tools, fixtures, carts, and other equipment. RTLS can measure product movement and track any and every order through a multistage assembly and test process. Imagine a solution that records movement from place to place, automatically time-stamping every value-added activity. This makes it possible to identify areas where the waste is hiding. After all, if you don’t know where the bottlenecks are, how can you devise strategies to eliminate them? RTLS can also track people, so you can find critical team members when you need them.
The Advantage of Wi-Fi Infrastructure
AeroScout delivers complete location-based services and enterprise visibility solutions that take advantage of a Cisco wireless infrastructure. AeroScout, part of Stanley Black & Decker, is a global market leader in enterprise visibility solutions using standard Wi- Fi networks. Its systems can track and monitor the quantity, location, condition (temperature, humidity, etc.), and status of inventory, as well as mobile assets and people equipped with a unique tag. The company invented the first Wi-Fi-based active RFID tag, and today it is widely recognized as a market-leading Wi-Fi RTLS provider. In a recent blog, my colleague Chet Namboodri details Stanley Black & Decker’s results of a new Connected Factory Wireless implementation conducted with Cisco and AeroScout Industrial.
Unique, identifiable RFID tags are small and inexpensive, and they can be attached to virtually any item. They can identify and locate devices, tools, work pieces, and more in a manufacturing context. Used heavily in large discrete manufacturing facilities, the tags communicate with Wi-Fi networks and provide location information based on triangulation between access points. The video below provides a good overview of additional use cases.
Manufacturing companies are profiting from real-time location systems – here’s how:
A major tire plant produces 1000 different car and truck tire products in a 2.6 million square foot facility. Tire curing machines needed to be full for maximum batch efficiency and to maintain production levels. Previously, sub-optimal management of green tire inventory on the floor left too many curing slots empty. Meanwhile, green tires were being scrapped in other parts of the plant. Confusion caused waste of both green and cured tires. Adding tags to each product carrier allowed managers to monitor inventory across the entire facility. Improvements were widespread: more efficient curing, production closer to schedule, less labor overtime, waste reduction, and fewer physical inventory counts of WIP.
An architectural glass fabricator builds outer walls for commercial and institutional buildings in three facilities across the United States. Their manufacturing process uses thousands of individual carriers that transport glass for custom orders. As the orders move through nearly 20 tempering, lamination, vacuum, and other process steps, workers would see their share of breakage, lost inventory, and remakes. The company needed a solution that would help locate any job within five minutes, and that solution had to fit into the current networking infrastructure, with easy deployment and minimal maintenance. The Wi- Fi-based RTLS system monitors projects using the company’s existing Cisco Wi-Fi network and increased carrier location accuracy from 60 percent to well over 90 percent. It has also reduced total glass scrap by 65 percent. In addition, the company has reduced staging losses by 55 percent and repurposed 16 full-time employees previously assigned to find glass throughout the facility.
Cisco and AeroScout bring both technologies together to operate seamlessly. Manufacturers can benefit from a robust solution that supports more cost-effective manufacturing by removing unnecessary fat from your lean manufacturing operation. Why continue to waste money searching for critical people, equipment, and materials? Find out how Cisco and AeroScout can create a real-time location system for you.