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Threat Spotlight: “Kyle and Stan” Malvertising Network 9 Times Larger Than Expected

This post was authored by Armin Pelkmann.

On September 8th, Cisco’s Talos Security Intelligence & Research Group unveiled the existence of the “Kyle and Stan” Malvertisement Network. The network was responsible for placing malicious advertisements on big websites like,,, and 70 other domains. As it turns out, this was just the tip of the iceberg. Ongoing research now reveals the real size of the attackers’ network is 9 times larger than reported in our first blog. For more details, read the Kyle and Stan Blog.

The infographic below illustrates how much more of the malvertisement network was uncovered in comparison to our first assessment. We have now isolated 6491 domains sharing the same infrastructure. This is over 9 times the previously mentioned 703 domains.  We have observed and analyzed 31151 connections made to these domains. This equals over 3 times the amount of connections previously observed. The increase in connections is most likely not proportional to the domains due to the fact that a long time that has passed since the initial attacks.


The discovery difference from the previous blog to this one in raw numbers. With more than 3-times the now observed connections and over 9-times the revealed malicious domains, this malvertising network is of unusually massive proportions.

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Threat Spotlight: “Kyle and Stan” Malvertising Network Threatens Windows and Mac Users With Mutating Malware

This post was authored by Shaun Hurley, David McDaniel and Armin Pelkmann.

Update 2014-09-22: Updates on this threat can be found here

img_MetricsHave you visited,,,, or any of the 74 domains listed below lately? If the answer is yes, then you may have been a victim to the “Kyle and Stan” Malvertising Network that distributes sophisticated, mutating malware for Windows and even Macs.

Table of contents

Attack in a Nutshell
Technical Breakdown
Reversing of the Mac Malware
Reversing of the Windows Malware
Protecting Users Against These Threats

Malvertising is a short form for “malicious advertising.” The idea is very simple: use online advertising to spread malware. Read More »

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Angling for Silverlight Exploits

VRT / TRACThis post is co-authored by Andrew Tsonchev, Jaeson Schultz, Alex Chiu, Seth Hanford, Craig Williams, Steven Poulson, and Joel Esler. Special thanks to co-author Brandon Stultz for the exploit reverse engineering. 

Silverlight exploits are the drive-by flavor of the month. Exploit Kit (EK) owners are adding Silverlight to their update releases, and since April 23rd we have observed substantial traffic (often from Malvertising) being driven to Angler instances partially using Silverlight exploits. In fact in this particular Angler campaign, the attack is more specifically targeted at Flash and Silverlight vulnerabilities and though Java is available and an included reference in the original attack landing pages, it’s never triggered.

Rise in Angler Attacks

HTTP requests for a specific Angler Exploit Kit campaign

Exploit Content Type

Angler exploit content types delivered to victims, application/x-gzip (Java) is notably absent


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Year-Long Exploit Pack Traffic Campaign Surges After Leveraging CDN

TRACThis post is coauthored by Andrew Tsonchev.

Anyone can purchase an exploit pack (EP) license or rent time on an existing EP server. The challenge for threat actors is to redirect unsuspecting web browsing victims by force to the exploit landing page with sustained frequency. Naturally, like most criminal services in the underground, the dark art of traffic generation is a niche specialty that must be purchased to ensure drive-by campaign success. For the past year we have been tracking a threat actor (group) that compromises legitimate websites and redirects victims to EP landing pages. Over the past three months we observed the same actor using malvertising -- leveraging content delivery networks (CDNs) to facilitate increased victim redirection -- as part of larger exploit pack campaigns. Read More »

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