In a good education system, students move through school, graduate, and somewhere between 30 and 50% complete university. Formal training is complete, education is finished. People who were once students could relax and enjoy the benefits of the skills and networks they had developed through learning, and any decline in their skills would be offset by gains in experience and compensated for by the new generation of graduates coming through the education pipeline. This was an education system which was quite effective until the 21st century where we live in a more globalized and interconnected world.
Now, globalisation, accelerating technological change and massive demographic shifts demand a change in education systems: its purpose, where it happens, when it happens, how it happens. Since new technologies are appearing at such a fast pace, formal education in the first 20 years of life will only form a foundation for future learning. Lifelong learning will become a necessity, not a nice-to-have. And as the world shrinks, people in India or china or eastern Europe are competing with those in Indiana for jobs and those in Copenhagen collaborate with those in Cape Town. It is no longer good enough to be second best: everyone needs 21st century skills – not just better skills, but different skills.
To respond to this socio-economic shift, our education systems need to change. Curricula and pedagogy must focus on building skills for life and instilling a love for learning. We need to think about new ways of organising learning so that those who are currently excluded by geography, poverty or learning style have a real chance. Schools, colleges and universities need to open their doors, and become accessible centres of learning throughout life. And new partners, from the private sector to non-profits, to foundations need to become part of a wider coalition to deliver learning and drive continuous innovation and improvement.
Without these changes, we risk a difficult future: weaker economies, fragmented societies, unhappy people. Incremental reform is no longer enough – we must jointly take on the task of becoming a learning society.
Director, Cisco Global Education
Tags: 21st century learning environment, brain drain, cost-savings, distance, education, generation, higher education, learning, next generation learning
What makes a university great? In 2002 MIT decided that it was not the educational resources they shared with their students with, but the quality of interactions between students and their teachers, so made a foray into distance education by starting to put their course materials online so as to provide access to quality educational materials for anyone who wanted to access them. This was the beginning of the Open Educational Resources (OER)movement. At the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in Tunis in 2005 an initiative was launched in a partnership between the Development Gateway Foundation and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation to connect anyone with Internet access and the desire to learn to a world of free, high-quality open educational materials. The Development Gateway Foundation’s “Open Educational Resources” portal aimed to equalize access to education and help people in developing countries improve their chances for a better life. OER are now available from a multitude of universities across the world and, with the introduction of iTunesU, there are no shortage of materials in a range of multi-modal formats available on almost any academic subject you care to choose.
Cisco has also supported a number of open educational resources through the Cisco Networking Academy, in which all its content is made freely available to registered Academies across the world, and through some of its social investments in education including hairdressing resources for Africa and the global programme, Teachers without Borders.
For developing countries the opportunity to obtain free, quality resources can only be beneficial, but if it is the collaboration and instruction on such resources that provides the maximum value, then universities and other educational institutions accessing OER need to ensure that they are able to support students effectively. Additionally such resources may need customisation and localisation, as the style and mode in which they are presented may not be appropriate to another culture. Infrastructure constraints and insufficient bandwidth may also need to be addressed so that media-rich content can be streamed and stored.
There are additional tensions around the provision of OER as overseas students are lucrative sources of funds for universities. Why would universities in the developed world help those universities in the developing world by providing support for improving teaching quality and help those universities to become more proficient and economically viable through dual-teaching and mentoring using OER? Why would they help find opportunities to keep the brightest brains in country to teach the next generation? Why would they encourage students to study overseas and risk perpetuating the brain drain which is hitting continents like Africa particularly hard?
If OER is to benefit those less fortunate or unable to benefit from an education at the leading universities of the world, then there needs to be a willingness to support developing world universities, access to all resources needs to be affordable, and adaptation of OER may often need to be undertaken to make sure that:
resources are culturally, pedagogically and technologically aligned
the language of instruction is appropriate
assessment models associated with OER are robust
links are made with books and other media
OER resources are accessible on low cost and low power access devices
there is an ability to partnering with radio and TV stations for either podcasting, broadcasting or both
With the multitude of collaboration tools available today, an effective way for universities across the world to work together will emerge which will result in a win-win situation for all.
Tags: brain drain, higher education, oer