After delivering several presentations at Cisco Live and Cisco Connect this year, I received a few questions regarding DNS Response Policy Zones (RPZ) and how can they be used to block DNS resolution to known malicious hosts and sites. I decided to write this short post to explain what it is and provide several pointers.
DNS RPZ is a technology developed by ISC available since Bind version 9.8. Network administrators can use DNS RPZ to essentially stop malware-infected hosts from reaching their command and control (C&C) servers by blocking DNS resolution to known malicious hosts and sites. This effectively turns a recursive DNS server into a DNS firewall. In fact, many people refer to DNS RPZ as the “DNS Firewall.” Various ISPs are testing and implementing this to provide additional protection to their customers.
Note: DNS RPZ will block DNS resolution, machines connecting to the C&C via IP address will not be blocked.
The following figure provides an overview of how DNS RPZ works.
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Tags: cisco sio, cyber crime, cyber security, dns, dns rpz, incident response, malicious dns requests, malware, Response Policy Zones, RPZ
A memory error is a condition that occurs any time one or more bits being read from memory have changed state from what was previously written. By even the most conservative of estimates Internet devices experience more than 600,000 memory errors per day. Cosmic radiation, operating a device outside its recommended environmental conditions, and defects in manufacturing can all cause a “1” in memory to become a “0” or vice-versa. Most of these bit errors are harmless, but occasionally the bit error occurs inside a domain name or URL, and this can affect where Internet traffic is directed. The term “bitsquatting”, which refers to the practice of registering a domain name one binary digit different than another, is a term coined after a similar term, “cybersquatting” --the practice of registering an unofficial domain which could be confused for a legitimate one.
For example, the fully qualified domain name “www.cisco.com” could by changing only a single binary digit become the bitsquat domain name “wwwncisco.com”. In this example, the dot separating the second and third level domain names has experienced a bit error, and changed to become the letter “n”.
Binary representation of a dot versus the character “n”
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Tags: Bitsquatting, dns, RPZ, TRAC