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Virtualization Everywhere, but not a Cloud in Sight!

Customers have often said to me, “Joann, we have virtualization all over the place. That’s cloud isn’t it?”   My response is, “Well not really, that is not a cloud, but you can get to cloud!”  Then there is a brief uncomfortable silence, which I resolve with an action provoking explanation that I will now share with you.

Here’s why that isn’t truly a cloud. What these customers often have is server provisioning that automates the process of standing up new virtual servers while the storage, network, and application layers continue to be provisioned manually. The result is higher management costs that strain IT budgets, which are decreasing or flat to begin with. With this approach, businesses aren’t seeing the agility and flexibility they expected from cloud. So, they become frustrated when they see their costs rising and continue struggling to align with new business innovation.

If your IT department adopted widespread virtualization and thought it was cloud, my guess is you are probably nodding your head in agreement.  Don’t worry, you’re not alone.

So then, what are the key elements an organization needs to achieve the speed, flexibility and agility promised by cloud?

1)      Self-service portal and service catalog
The self-service portal is the starting point that customers use to order cloud services. Think of a self-service portal as a menu at a restaurant.  The end user is presented with a standardized menu of services that have been defined to IT’s policies and standards and customers simply order what they need.  Self-service portals greatly streamline resource deployment which reduces the manual effort by IT to provision resources.

2)      Service delivery automation
After the user selects services from the portal service menu, then what? Well, under the hood should be automated service delivery—which is a defining characteristic of a real cloud environment.  Behind each of the standardized menu items in the self-service portal is a blueprint or instructions that prescribe how the service order is delivered across the data center resources.  This has been proven to appreciably simplify IT operations, reduce costs and drive business flexibility.

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Introducing First Services Module on Nexus 7000 Series

Cloud computing is part of the journey to deliver IT as a Service which enables IT to change from a cost center to a business strategic partner. Forrester Research recently published a report that concluded, “Cloud computing is ready for the enterprise… but many enterprises aren’t ready for the cloud.”1   Yet Cloud deployments are happening – and I mean all types of Clouds – Private, Public and Hybrid. In other words, we have entered the World of Many Clouds.

Network touches everything and is a key building block for agile and scalable virtualized and Cloud-based data centers. Yesterday, I have introduced our new Nexus 6000 series and new 40 GE extensions to Nexus 5500 and 2000 Series. Today, I would like to introduce the very first services module for the Nexus 7000 Series.

  NAM

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Introducing Nexus 6000 Series – Industry’s Highest Density Layer 2/3 40 Gigabit Fixed Switch

The evolution of the applications environment is creating new demands on IT and in the data center. Broad adoption of scale-out application architectures (i.e. big data), workload virtualization and cloud deployments are demanding greater scalability across the fabric. The increase in east/west (i.e. server-to-server) traffic along with the higher adoption of 10GbE in the server access layer is driving higher bandwidth requirements in the upstream links.

Following up on the introduction of 40GE/100GE on the Nexus 7000 Series, today we unveil the new Nexus 6000 Series, expanding Cisco’s Unified Fabric data center switching portfolio in order to provide greater deployment flexibility through higher density and scalability in an energy efficient form factor.  

The Cisco Nexus 6000 Series is industry’s highest density full-featured Layer 2 / Layer 3 40 Gigabit data center fixed switch with Ethernet and Fiber Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) – an industry first!In addition to high scalability, Nexus 6000 Series offers operational efficiency, superior visibility and agility 

Some say “Nexus 6000 Series is a red carpet platform that will turn heads”. We agree! It’s because of …

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VDI “The Missing Questions” #1: Core Count vs. Core Speed

Choosing the right compute platform for your VDI environment requires both science and art. You have to balance CPU and memory characteristics against your expected workload profile and your desired density. At the end of the day, VDI has to meet some cost criteria in order to go from a fun science project to a funded program in your company. That means you can’t just throw the top bin CPU at the problem; you have to pick the right CPU. This is further complicated by the fact that there is not one CPU that is ideal for all VDI workloads. There is no magical bill of materials at the end of this series of blogs, but we will attempt to make your VDI decisions based more on science than art.

Strength in numbers? Or strength in speed? As Tony said in his introduction, we had several involved questions related to VDI that we honestly couldn’t answer… so we decided to start testing. This will be a series of blogs that attempts to answer practical questions like “when is processor A better than processor B?” And of course you then have to ask “when is processor B better than processer A?” In this first installment in the series, I will tackle the question of whether the number of cores or the core speed is more important when the goal is to achieve the best desktop density per host. Here is a handy guide to the other posts in this series:

The usual suspects. Throughout this series, we will focus on two processors. We picked them because they are popular and cost effective, yet quite different from each other. They are not top bin processors. Take a look at the table below for a comparison.

Note: Prices in this table are recommended prices published by Intel at http://ark.intel.com and may vary from actual prices you pay for each processor. The SPEC performance numbers are an average of SPEC results published by many OEMs (at http://www.spec.org/) across many platforms. These are not Cisco-specific SPEC numbers.

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VDI – The Questions You Didn’t Ask (But Really Should)

There’s no shortage of content out there (a quick Google search easily confirms this) when it comes to looking for vendor-originated material touting the latest server performance benchmarks for hosted virtual desktops.  Being part of that community, I’m pretty sure I have my fingerprints on more than one such piece of collateral – and I’m constantly reminded of this, when we run into questions along the lines of “yeah, {xxx} desktops on a blade is great, but c’mon, you and I both know we’d never do that in practice”.  It’s a balancing act of demonstrating solution performance, intersected with the practical reality of what IT managers would reasonably support in a production environment.

So what really matters?  If I’m implementing VDI for the 1st time, and I’m trying to make intelligent decisions around CPU, memory speed, IOPS, etc., where do I go?  VDI is unique in its consumption of compute, storage and network resources, when compared to other workloads hosted in the data center.  Much of the performance benchmarking info put out by server manufacturers is not specific to VDI performance, or how user experience might be impacted by simple decisions like choice of clock speed or # of vCPU.

Thankfully, there are folks in my company that care a LOT about such questions.  So much so, that a small, VDI-proficient group of them took it upon themselves to design and build an in-house lab environment with one express purpose – exhaustively exploring and documenting the performance and scalability impacts seen when configuring your compute platform for VDI.  No stone left unturned – things like CPU cores, clock speed, memory speed,  vCPU, memory density and more – all fair game.

The findings are extremely valuable to anyone deploying VDI, and what this team discovered is a set of real-life “questions”.  The “Missing” questions if you will – those questions that are noticeably absent or never sufficiently exposed in marketing materials, when it comes to the practical choices you can make that most significantly impact the cost, scalability and performance of your virtual desktop implementation.

So let me start with an introduction.  Over the next few weeks, you’re going to hear from some peers of mine – Doron Chosnek, Jason Marchesano, and Shawn Kaiser.  They’re Cisco Consulting Systems Engineers, and they live and breathe VDI (I know, melodramatic), as implemented in their customers’ data centers around the world.

They undertook this journey with the express purpose of answering the “missing” questions, by assembling a test platform in their lab, built on Cisco Unified Computing System (UCS), using readily available components including:

  • Various UCS B200 M3 configurations
  • Login Virtual Session Indexer (Login VSI) 3.6.1 benchmark
  • Login VSI’s Medium with Flash workload
  • VMware View 5.1.1
  • Microsoft Windows 7 SP1 32-bit virtual desktops
  • Pure Storage FlashArray with Purity version 2.0.2.

Keep in mind that their goal was not to explore maximum scalability, or prescribe a preferred design/architecture, or even what kind of server blade or processor you should use for VDI.  Instead they relied on commonly available gear easily found in our customer’s data centers.  If you want prescriptive design guidance, Cisco CVD’s are ideal for that, and you can find them here.

So let’s talk about their test environment.

Physical Lab

The physical environment shown below is a highly overprovisioned system.  Only one B200 M3 blade was tested at any one time, yet every logical link between elements shown consists of multiple 10-GbE links or multiple 8-Gb Fibre Channel links.

The storage array has 24 flash disks and is capable of substantially higher IOPS than used for this testing. All the infrastructure machines used for this test (Active Directory, VMware vCenter, VMware View, VSI Launchers) are virtual machines on the B230 M2 blade in the environment.

9 Q Figure 1

 

Note: At the time of testing, the Pure Storage had not completed UCS certification testing.

 

Logical Server Environment

9 Q Figure 2

The tests involved two UCS B200 M3 blades, one with dual E5-2665 processors and the other with dual E5-2643 processors.  The 2643 is a 4-core high clock/burst speed processor, and the 2665 is an 8-core medium/high clock/burst speed processor.  Here are the specs for the CPU’s chosen:

9 Q Figure 3

Now, you may wonder, are either of these THE processor you would choose for VDI?  Not necessarily! 

Keep in mind the goal we set out with – to expose the relative impacts of # cores, clock speed, memory speed, #vCPU’s etc.  What you’ll take away from the results, are guidance on which parameters matter for specific types of VDI deployments.  You can then safely look at a VDI-“workhorse” processor like the E5-2680 or E5-2690, and apply what our CSE’s have learned through this testing, to that class of CPU, and make your best selection there.

The tests were conducted using Login VSI’s Medium with Flash workload generator.  As we explore the test results in this series, you’ll see reference to “VSImax”, which defines the threshold past which the user experience will be unacceptable.  The VSImax threshold will appear on supporting graphs that show the performance curve under various test scenarios.  You can learn more about how this threshold is derived here.

9 Q Table 1

So that’s the test environment.  Through this series – let’s call it VDI – the Questions You Didn’t Ask (But Really Should) – our CSE friends (Shawn, Doron, and Jason) will explore and expose the findings they’ve documented for us, dealing with a new “question” each time.  If you join us for this journey, it’ll be worth your while – you’ll come away with a better appreciation of the impact that some simple decisions in your data center compute configuration can make.

So are you ready for the journey – You’ll find the Questions (answered thus far) below:

  1. VDI “The Missing Questions” #1: Core Count vs. Core Speed
  2. VDI “The Missing Questions” #2: Core Speed Scaling (Burst)
  3. VDI “The Missing Questions” #3: Realistic Virtual Desktop limits
  4. VDI “The Missing Questions” #4: How much SPECint is enough
  5. VDI “The Missing Questions” #5: How does 1vCPU scale compared to 2vCPU’s?
  6. VDI “The Missing Questions” #6: What do you really gain from a 2vCPU virtual desktop?
  7. VDI “The Missing Questions” #7: How memory bus speed affects scale
  8. VDI “The Missing Questions” #8: How does memory density affect VDI scalability?
  9. VDI “The Missing Questions” #9: How many storage IOPs?
  10. VDI “The Missing Questions” Conclusion

Special Web Event – You’re Invited!

If you’re enjoying our series, be sure to join our free webcast, where Shawn, Doron and Jason will discuss all the (Missing) VDI Questions Live + take your Q&A.  Access the webcast here.

Featured Whitepaper Now Available!

Need a convenient whitepaper-ized version of the discussion?  Download it now, here.

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