It’s that time of year again in the US – Tax Time! That time of year where we review the previous year’s bounty, calculate what’s due, and re-evaluate our strategies to see if we can keep more of what we worked for. Things change; rules, the economy, time to retirement, and before you know it you find yourself working through alternatives and making some new decisions.
Anyway, as I was working through the schedules and rule sheets, my mind wandered and I started to think about Wi-Fi and the taxes associated with it. In my day job, I often play the role of forensic accountant. Like a tax accountant, I’m always looking for a way to get more or understand why there isn’t more already. So along those lines, lets talk about a little known tax that you may well be paying needlessly. I’m talking of course about the dreaded 802.11b Penalty.
Wi-Fi protocols like 802.11b are referenced by standards committees for the workgroup that develops them. In the 2.4 GHz spectrum, there is 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11n. Back in 1997, 802.11b was the first modern Wi-Fi protocol ratified by the IEEE and it allowed transmissions of 11 Mbps, a major jump forward from the previous 2 Mbps that was possible with the original 802.11 standard.
After 802.11b came 802.11a, and then 802.11g. Both of these protocols where a radical departure from the simplistic 802.11b structure and employed Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation (now standard in every 802.11 protocol created since then). OFDM allowed for Read More »
As world leaders ponder how to meet the growing demand for energy and resources, while reducing global carbon emissions, cities are challenged even further. The exponential growth of cities has resulted in enormous urban challenges: scarcity of resources; skyrocketing passenger, cargo, and digital traffic; and outdated and overloaded infrastructures.
The continued expansion of the Internet and our society’s increased connectivity seemingly amplify these urban challenges. However, Cisco and Schneider Electric see an opportunity to create a new future for cities, and they are already making cities more efficient and connected today.
The key is transforming a city from the inside out:
Developing an efficient infrastructure for the utilities network, transportation systems, buildings, and public services.
Adding connectivity to integrate these efficiency solutions, and including people in the social conversation.
Reducing carbon emissions and environmental consequences of urban life to ensure sustainability.
This transformation requires that the city’s operating systems, such as utilities and transportation, function with optimal efficiency, allowing data collection for operations optimization. In order to solve the “pain points” that negatively affect city residents (such as power outages), it is critical to optimize each individual system, as well as the overall structure and connections among systems. Efficient integrated operating systems that create connections will improve services, offer better information sharing, and enhance a city’s sustainability and livability, transforming it into a Smart City.
Energy cost and availability show up in every day conversations. What was your electricity bill last month? Mine was about $180. That pays for my lights, my TV’s, my stereo, my refrigeration, and probably some things I don’t know about. Maybe even timers to turn things on and off. But I know that some of my neighbors always ask what my bill was and then compare it to theirs. And given my Christmas lighting, likely my bill will be higher than theirs!
But in terms of energy consumption, I am just a tiny pea. Think about what our manufacturing plants use every day. They need to start up a process, they need to heat, refrigerate, do something to make it a product, transport, do what they do best, all to make a product we can go to a retailer and buy. And sometimes that product was built a continent away from us and then it needed to be shipped to a Distribution Center, so it could end up on the shelf in front of me.
So lets talk for a bit about energy and manufacturing plants. Many estimates are that manufacturing plants consume better than 50% of the power that is produced today. Just as we, consumers, are presented with offers from our utility company to “time sequence” our usage, manufacturing companies get more. Doesn’t it make sense for them to get all the information they can? Read More »