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Building an IoT Company in Europe

Building an IoT company is a great opportunity to work on things you have never done before.  Here is a list of my conclusions with brief anecdotes about the difficulties of building az IoT company.

Choose the size of your funding need wisely

When we started, our pre-seed angel investor suggested to close an angel round by involving other investors. The more money you attract at the beginning, the longer runway you have to develop the product that you believe in without having to take away your focus from value creation. It turned out without having the credibility of using small investments wisely and build traction with it you won’t be given the opportunity to get funded with hundreds/millions of Dollars. Build up your credibility together with your venture. One step at a time. Read More »

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IoT, from Cloud to Fog Computing


Nowadays, there are billions of devices connected to the Internet, and this has led to some advances in the Electronics and Telecommunication technology developments in recent years which resulted in various kinds of very powerful devices with communication and networking capabilities that have attracted the industries to adopt this technology into their daily business to increase their efficiency. Other than the industrial sector, there are other sectors like assisted living services, public services, etc., which have a big demand for Information and Communication Technology developments. Therefore, there is the need for a new paradigm in M2M communication which enables “Things” connectivity to the Global Internet Network. This paradigm is known by the term IoT.

IoT is the network of physical objects or “Things” embedded with electronics, SW, Sensors and connectivity to enable it to achieve value and service by exchanging data with the manufacturer, operator and/or other connected devices through advanced communication protocols without human operation. The technology of IoT has been evolved according to the environment based on information communication technology and social infrastructure, and we need to know the technological evolution of IoT in the future. Read More »

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A Summary of Cisco VXLAN Control Planes: Multicast, Unicast, MP-BGP EVPN

With the adoption of overlay networks as the standard deployment for multi-tenant network, Layer2 over Layer3 protocols have been the favorite among network engineers. One of the Layer2 over Layer3 (or Layer2 over UDP) protocols adopted by the industry is VXLAN. Now, as with any other overlay network protocol, its scalability is tied into how well it can handle the Broadcast, Unknown unicast and Multicast (BUM). That is where the evolution of VXLAN control plane comes into play.

The standard does not define a “standard” control plane for VXLAN. There are several drafts describing the use of different control planes. The most commonly use VXLAN control plane is multicast. It is implemented and supported by multiple vendors and it is even natively supported in server OS like the Linux Kernel.

This post tries to summarize the three (3) control planes currently supported by some of the Cisco NX-OS/IOS-XR. My focus is more towards the Nexus 7k, Nexus 9k, Nexus 1k and CSR1000v.

Each control plane may have a series of caveats in their own, but those are not covered by this blog entry. Let’s start with some VXLAN definitions:

(1) VXLAN Tunnel Endpoint (VTEP): Map tenants’ end devices to VXLAN segments. Used to perform VXLAN encapsulation/de-encapsulation.
(2) Virtual Network Identifier (VNI): identify a VXLAN segment. It hast up to 224 IDs theoretically giving us 16,777,216 segments. (Valid VNI values are from 4096 to 16777215). Each segment can transport 802.1q-encapsulated packets, theoretically giving us 212 or 4096 VLANs over a single VNI.
(3) Network Virtualization Endpoint or Network Virtualization Edge (NVE): overlay interface configured in Cisco devices to define a VTEP

VXLAN with Multicast Control Plane

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Why Network Design in the Modern Era Has Kept Me from Retirement

Network Design in the Modern Era1In youth-oriented Silicon Valley, it’s risky to mention this, but I’ve been around for a long time. In fact, in theory I could retire! I already moved to a small town in the Pacific Northwest where the cost of living is low, and I could spend my days hiking in the mountains.

But actually I can’t retire. Why? The networking field is too interesting! In addition, modern networking, with its emphasis on design, applications, policies, and users, focuses on the same concepts that have interested me from the beginning. Not only that, but I firmly believe that with today’s network design tools, we are positioned to build networks that are faster, larger, and even more user-friendly than ever. How could I retire when that’s the case?

In the Beginning

I started my career as a software developer. This was long before agile software development became popular, but nonetheless there was a focus on agility and flexibility. The goal was to develop software that could be used in multiple ways to support a broad range of users. The focus was on user behavior, application modeling, systems analysis, and structured design. Read More »

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Plan to Be Secure; Secure to Your Plan

The routine goes something like this. First a breach of security occurs somewhere in the enterprise, it could be something as small as a single computer getting infected or it could be a massive data loss. It seems like that’s a wide range of events, but often the reaction in an enterprise is the same. The IT executives have a meeting to determine fault and then the analysts and engineers are given the task of making sure that that particular incident never happens again. The analysts and engineers then reply with budget requests for new software and hardware from their favorite vendors. Unfortunately the end result is generally that money is spent and security is only moderately improved, if at all.

In the midst of reacting, everyone forgets that technology doesn’t configure itself and that the weakest link are the people. Instead of ramming in the latest and greatest in technology, we should be leading our company to review, create (if necessary) and rewrite our security policies. Without a policy, security tools are like unguided missiles that we hope hit their target. Read More »

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